The text itself is divided into two parts. If More attempted to get anything across to the people of England it was this: Take a barren year of failed harvests, when many thousands of men have been carried off by hunger. If at the end of the famine the barns of the rich were searched.
A lawyer believes thieves should be hanged, but Hythloday thinks this punishment is too severe and that one should try to understand the reasons men steal in the first place, such as a lack of jobs.
He describes how greedy landlords are evicting peasants from their property, rendering them jobless, to pursue the wool trade. Cardinal More asks why Hythloday would eliminate the death penalty, and Hythloday says death is not a deterrent.
He describes the ancient Polyerites, who enslaved their thieves and killed them only if they tried to escape. An exchange ensues about what to do with the poor and sick follows, with a jokester suggesting they become brothers and nuns. Hythloday proposes a scenario in which he is present at a discussion between the king of France and his advisors, who recommend various ways the king might manipulate treaties and connive diplomatically to increase his power in Italy.
In this situation, Hythloday would want to tell the king to worry about the welfare of his own people and leave Italy alone, surely an unwelcome opinion. Hythloday goes on to give further examples of the futility of hoping to change politics.
He must make a dire situation as good as possible, even if the outcome is not wholly to his liking. Hythloday counters that court advisors must approve of the worst things and that, by compromising, they become complicit in corruption. He believes private property to be the source of this corruption and explains that in Utopia all property is communal and that Utopia consequently lacks many of the ills that plague a country such as England.
More remains skeptical about the desirability of communal property and argues that in such a society people would have no motivation to work.
Hythloday insists that Utopia is a well-ordered society, much older and wiser than European societies, so ancient and advanced that when a party of Romans were shipwrecked there the Utopians quickly mastered everything the Romans taught them.
More then requests a thorough description of Utopia, and Hythloday begins his lengthy account. The author More had been involved in politics since childhood and was certainly familiar with the various personalities that make up the court. The dismissive lawyer is doubtless reminiscent of many of the unsavory characters More encountered both as page boy in the very same Cardinal Morton household and as a member of parliament and advisor to Henry VIII.
Many historians believe the wool trade was partly responsible for the destruction of rural peasant society, and More and many of his contemporaries criticized those who profited from the high price of wool by evicting peasant farmers from the land to turn it over to sheep herding.
The resulting mass poverty contrasted the increasingly opulent lifestyles of the wealthy, and More saw their greed not only as a corrupting influence but also as an offense to Christian piety.
The vice of greed is a constantly recurring theme throughout Utopia. Foreign rulers are interested only in increasing their wealth and care little for the welfare of the people, and Hythloday believes abolishing private property to be the only real solution. The author More uses Hythloday to introduce idealistic models and the narrator More to show how they might play out in practice.
More advocates a realistic attitude in contrast to Hythloday, whose idealism has left him cynically inactive. However, More seems also to suggest that some element of truth exists in the ideals Hythloday represents and that those ideals can be realized only if they can be reconciled with the realities of politics and practical life.Western Theories of Justice.
Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. The word comes from the Latin jus, meaning right or law. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the “just” person as one who typically “does what is morally right” and is disposed to “giving everyone his or her due,” offering the word “fair” as a synonym.
Free, non-profit, critically annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare. Etymology. In the English language, the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, who was a millenarian and a Christian Israelite. Western Theories of Justice. Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. The word comes from the Latin jus, meaning right or law. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the “just” person as one who typically “does what is morally right” and is disposed to “giving everyone his or her due,” offering the word “fair” as a synonym.
Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. If the loss of faith with humanity and/or society and government makes them decide to do something drastic to "fix" it, they become an Anti-Villain, most commonly a Knight Templar or Dark Messiah.; Alternately, if they just jump off the slippery slope and embrace chaos and the destruction of humanity as the only solution to their pain, they'll become a straight up cackling Card-Carrying Villain.
Abstract. Walt Disney enterprises are theorized as a storytelling organization in which an active-reactive interplay of premodern, modern, and postmodern discourses occur.
More divides this classic work into two books that portray Utopia as an egalitarian society for the good of every inhabitant. Book One Summary of Utopia In Book One, Thomas More and his friend, Peter Giles, interrogate a wayward traveler named Raphael Hythloday.
A summary of Utopia, continued in 's Thomas More (–). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Thomas More (–) and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.