Chapter 5Science and Technology for Disease Control: As we move into the new millennium it is becoming increasingly clear that the biomedical sciences are entering the most exciting phase of their development. Paradoxically, medical practice is also passing through a phase of increasing uncertainty, in both industrial and developing countries.
The Top 10 Medical Advances of the Decade From genome to hormones, doctors pick the top medical advances of the decade. In some cases these advances changed deep-seated beliefs in medicine; in others, they opened up possibilities beyond what doctors thought was possible years ago. ABC News, in collaboration with MedPage Today reached out to more than specialists as well as a distinguished panel of medical historians to put together a top 10 list of medical advances one decade into this century.
For the first time the world could read the complete set of human genetic information and begin to discover what our roughly 23, genes do. Mapping the human genome had become a race of time and money in the s, with two competitors at the forefront: Both groups announced a rough draft at joint press conference on June 26, In a "final" draft was released by researchers, and in more updates to the genome were published by Craig Venter, PhD, chief scientist behind Celera Genomics.
At the moment Venter sees more medical potential than medical achievements in genomic research. But when those advances do come, Venter predicts it will help preventative medicine and cut our rapidly accelerating medical costs from increasingly expensive treatments.
Doctors and Patients Harness Information Technology Patients may not even think of it as they sign in with a pad and pen, then sit in the waiting room while the nurse pulls their file.
But doctors say the Internet and information technology has actually changed the way they practice medicine for the better. Even doctors need to look things up from time to time. Information technology has also, to some degree, made life safer for the patient. Once admitted to a hospital, they get a bar code which matches their blood samples and their IVs.
But many physicians have been reluctant to go digital because there is a significant upfront investment, which is why several of the healthcare reform measures now before Congress include provisions to underwrite some of this cost.
And with or without reform, the Obama administration has an ambitious program aimed at converting paper records to electronic health records. In a report issued last October, the Institute of Medicine said those public smoking bans have cut exposure to secondhand smoke, which, in turn, has contributed to a reduction in heart attacks and death from heart disease.
In terms of the greatest good for the greatest number, there can be no doubt that the decline in smoking through various means has had the greatest impact," said Humphreys. Heart Disease Deaths Drop by 40 Percent Those looking for dramatic improvements in public health need look no further than the world of heart disease.
A mere 25 years ago, when a patient came to a hospital with a heart attack, the best that could be done was to put the patient in a darkened room, give him or her morphine for pain and lidocaine, which doctors believed would prevent dangerous irregular heartbeats, and hope for the best.
Heart attacks, called infarcts, were "big" and the damage to the heart muscle was often catastrophic, leading eventually to heart failure and death. By contrast, today treating a heart attack is all about speed: Or, if the problem is a vessel narrowed by buildup of plaque, a tiny flexible tube called a stent can be guided from an artery in the groin or the forearm up into the heart, where it is used to prop open the vessel to allow blood to flow normally.
Still other patients are sent to surgery, where surgeons have learned sophisticated techniques to sew new vessels into the heart to bypass diseased arteries. Cardiologists say these efforts really began to bear fruit after We actually realized this goal by and have seen continued improvements in the reduction of deaths due to coronary heart disease and stroke," said Clyde Yancy, MD, of Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas, Texas.
Yancy said research shows about half of the gains in heart disease came from new treatment interventions, the other half up to 60 percent are due to prevention. Laboratory Breakthroughs and Some Clinical Advances Probably no area of research has so fired the public imagination and so ignited the fires of public controversy as that of stem cell research.
In reality, this area has generated more political action than reproducible clinical advances -- the much-publicized ban on Federal funding of embryonic stem cell research was rescinded this year. But the clinical advances with embryonic or adult stem cells -- even when they have come from pilot studies -- have been tantalizing.
New drugs based on stem cells are being developed, and the first human clinical trial based on products of human embryonic stem cells is expected in ," said Daley. Targeted Therapies for Cancer Expand With New Drugs Two blockbuster-targeted therapies burst on the cancer scene in late s, and arguably changed forever the concept of cancer treatment, converting what was often a fatal disease into a chronic illness.
The first, Herceptin, is a drug that targets a type of breast cancer that is characterized by a specific cancer gene -- an oncogene -- called HER Women whose cancers express HER-2, which is estimated to be about 25 percent of women with breast cancer, will respond to Herceptin even when other powerful chemotherapy drugs have failed.
Kimberly Blackwell, MD, of Duke University Medical Center, said doctors received a standing ovation when they presented the results of Herceptin drug trials.Life Life insurance provides a monetary benefit to a descendant s family or other des ignated beneficiary.
such as vetconnexx.comnce 42 Casualty Casualty insurance insures against accidents. The major problems faced at block are: Block-wise data on Life Expectancy at birth are not available. Block-wise data on GDP/Per Capita Income are not available. Only the data set for measuring knowledge deprivation (both literacy rate and gross enrolment ratio) for .
Life expectancy by continent & gender and is expected to keep on growing with advances in medical treatment and living standard continuing.
Life expectancy still varies greatly between. Suggested Citation:"3 Advances in Technologies with Relevance to Biology: The Future Landscape." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council.
Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Medical Advances Essay Examples. 9 total results. The Medical Advances That Was Witnessed During the American Civil War.
words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Major Scientific and Medical Advances Advances Greatly Enhanced in Life Expectancy of the Average Person. 1, words. 3 pages. Free medical advances papers, essays, and research papers. and scientists helped improve the health of the growing population.
In the average life expectancy was 42 years. By the average life expectancy had risen to nearly 55 years. I have chosen three different examples of "scientific advances" that have had a major effect .