White Collar or Blue?
Studying crime statistics also helps us understand the effectiveness of efforts to control it by tracking arrests and convictions. Analysts can tell whether it is increasing or decreasing relative to other possible mitigating factors such as the economy or unemployment rates in a community.
Politicians can point to crime statistics to define a problem or indicate a success. Sociologists can study the ups and downs of crime rates and any number of other variables in the society such as education, employment rates, ethnic demographics, and a long list of other factors thought to affect the rate at which crime is committed.
Property value is affected by the crime rates in a given neighborhood, and insurance rates are said to fluctuate with the ups and downs of crime.
Academics often disagree with the legal profession, who may disagree with law enforcement, who in turn, may disagree with legislators and politicians as to exactly what constitutes white-collar crime.
Generally, the varying definitions tend to concentrate on either or both of the following factors: It is, however, vital to understand what the term means to the persons using it in order to understand what they are actually saying.
This consideration can be especially important when dealing with abstracted statistics. The definition impacts what questions are asked, what kinds of answers are meaningful, and where researchers look for the answers to those questions. Depending on how one goes about deciding what to study in attempting to understand white-collar crime, one can either conclude that it is a form of conduct peculiar to offenders of high status enjoying positions of trust, as Sutherland seemed to feel, or one may arrive at a different conclusion if the research is confined to those convicted of federal offenses traditionally thought of as white-collar crime.
The offender-based definition seemed to serve sociologists well as a way to label and talk about offenses committed by successful, healthy people who were not suffering from the deficits of poor surroundings, lack of education, and all the other attributes that had come to be associated with perpetrators of violent street crime.
It helped explain why well-educated people who had ample access to societal resources members of respectable society could resort to crime as a means of achieving the goals they should logically have been able to achieve without violating the law. Sutherland saw four main factors at play here: These definitions work well when discussing why white-collar crime occurs or who commits it, but they are not as well suited to asking questions about how much white-collar crime is occurring or whether prevention methods are working.
Edelhertz identified four main types of white-collar offending: The Federal Bureau of Investigation U. Individuals and organizations commit these acts to obtain money, property, or services; to avoid the payment or loss of money or services; or to secure personal or business advantage.
As a practical matter, many people have rather informal interpretations of the term. White-collar crime can informally mean: One way that various groups have tried to reduce these inefficiencies is by crafting definitions that could enjoy buy-in from larger groups of stakeholders, providing them a common language and compatible tools for discussing white-collar crime.
Several aspects of white-collar crime were examined and discussed at length.corporate versus white-collar crime These elements of common ground between Sutherland and Geis are best illustrated in one issue: the nature of corporate crime and its relation to white-collar crime.
Statistical Analysis of White-Collar Crime Summary and Keywords As far back as the 19th century, statistics on reported crime have been relied upon as a means to understand and explain the nature and prevalence of crime (Friedrichs, ).
Tracking Offenders - White-Collar Crime Based on 28, white-collar felony cases reported in the offender-based transactions statistics of eight States and one territory, this report presents statistics on offense and offender characteristics as well as sentences compared to those who committed other crime .
Both criminologists and the general public tend to concentrate on street crime, both perpetrators and victims, while ignoring white-collar crime. Further, despite the fact that white-collar crimes generally receive less attention than street crimes, several white-collar criminals have recently been the focus of extensive media coverage.
that white-collar crime has significantly more detrimental effects to society in terms of monetary damage and victims. The financial cost of white-collar crime trumps that of street crime, with costs nearing 1 trillion dollars (Lynch and Michalowski, ).
White collar crime was first introduced as an idea in It was a response to the concerns that law enforcement typically has with street crime, but not with crime that happens when people are in occupations that have a higher status.