In other words, the notion that the Wars of Independence c. Over the last two decades, as a result, there has been a marked shift in the analysis of independent Latin America which has gone on to stress and emphasise the continuities that linked the late colonial period with the first national decades. For example, for historians such as Jaime E. Brian Hamnett, similarly, merged the late colonial period with the first half of the nineteenth century, in his recent history of Mexico, viewing the years - as ones that shared the themes of "destabilisation and fragmentation" A Concise History of Mexico, Cambridge:
In their status under the law, experiences at the bar, and, as a result, positions in household polities, women of color reckoned with a set of legalities that differed from those of their European counterparts.
Indigenous people had what one historian has labeled jurispractices, while Europeans brought and created a jurisprudence of race and status that shaped treatments of women of color across imperial spaces. Scholars of prerevolutionary North America argue against neat conceptualizations of slavery and freedom in starkly oppositional terms; instead, they recognize that a range of multiple dependencies existed across the regions of early North America.
In the earliest years of settlement, before the midth century, Africans, Europeans, and Indigenous Americans understood human bondage as part of a continuum that might range from temporary to permanent.
In order to understand the position of women under the law, it is useful first to discuss the variety of unfree statuses that coexisted across early America.
The three principal groups that populated early modern North America—Africans, Native Americans, and Europeans—all practiced varieties of slavery and captivity. In the earliest years of the settlement of British America, slavery was initially a fluid category, one not necessarily permanent, inheritable, or fixed.
Rather, for both men and women, slave status encompassed the possibility of change through baptism and legal challenge; the same was true of New Netherland. Outside of these jurisdictions, in French, Spanish, and Native settlements, African- or Native-descended women in particular could alter their status through marriage, adoption, or work.
Although the English settlements, as opposed to the French and Spanish, had few legal models for slavery aside from apprenticeship law, for the most part Europeans considered enslavement to be an acceptable legal status for cultural outsiders.
Similarly, for some Indians and Africans as well, enslavable groups were war captives and others understood to be cultural outcasts; slaving defined who was included or excluded.
Initially, Europeans did not restrict slavery to Africans and their descendants in America. In North America, Europeans traded Indian slaves—some two to four million from the late 15th to the early 19th centuries, many of whom were initially enslaved by other Native Americans.
Although Native America was remarkably diverse in the centuries before European settlement, Indigenous communities had developed distinctly complex practices of captivity, treating prisoners as spoils of war, as slaves, or as hostages or pawns in intercommunity diplomatic interactions, and these norms crossed ethnic lines in the north.
If these practices appear to have lacked what Europeans recognized as jurisprudence—a written body of laws, a corpus of legal theories, and a judiciary system—Native Americans engaged in what Katherine Hermes calls jurispractice; that is, they adhered to customs of acting legally, for instance using standard mechanisms and adhering to rules for resolving disputes, remedying wrongs, and punishing crimes.
Within Native communities, slavery was governed by these legal structures and existed across a continuum that might range from temporary unfreedom to permanent bondage. In the southwest borderlands, Native communities before and after Spanish contact practiced a unique form of slavery in which women and children were captives and hostages.
Because slavery was tied to kinship rather than labor, however, the captured women sometimes became cultural mediators despite their marginalization.
Among Southern Indians, slavery was a status on the continuum of captivity. Cultural and political outsiders—prisoners of war, individuals traded as property, and even those who voluntarily came to Indian communities—were slaves who brought human capital and social standing to her or his master.
Particularly in the southeast and the continental interior, where the balance of power remained on the side of Natives as opposed to Europeans, the former often defined captivity and slavery on their own terms.
Captives were not necessarily either prisoners, property, or intended strictly for labor. Female captives among the Cherokee faced a similar range of possibilities.
They could be married or adopted into clans; if these options were not available, however, they were kept as slaves who labored to support their masters and existed as social outsiders. French Louisiana provides yet another example; there, Indians relied in part on exchanging women captives in order to forge trade and diplomatic alliances.
Such captives could easily become slaves.The Great Awakening And Enlightenment In Colonial America During the late seventeenth and early eighteen centuries, colonial America saw major changes.
The Great Awakening And Enlightenment In Colonial America In the 18th century colonial America, the society was diverse and complex. In the three main geographic areas, .
The studies included here trace important themes in the development of the British American economy from earliest colonial settlement to the end of the 18th century. Each offers a particular argument about the causes and . Eighteenth Century British Colonies In the eighteenth century, the British Colonies in North America experienced many changes that helped form the identity of America.
The demographic, ethnic, and social characters of Britain’s colonies were some of the major characteristics to be altered in the s. American Revolution CCOT History American Revolution CONTINUITIES CONCLUSION Paragraph BEGINNING The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.
Women, Race, and the Law in Early America Summary and Keywords Everywhere across European and Indigenous settlements in 17th- and 18th-century North America and the Caribbean, the law or legal practices shaped women’s status and conditioned their dependency, regardless of race, age, marital status, or place of birth.
American Revolution CCOT History American Revolution CONTINUITIES CONCLUSION Paragraph BEGINNING The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become.