Explain how a normative science should be defined?
Back to Top Ethics or Moral Philosophy is concerned with questions of how people ought to act, and the search for a definition of right conduct identified Ethics cannot be defined the one causing the greatest good and the good life in the sense of a life worth living or a life that is satisfying or happy.
The word "ethics" is derived from the Greek "ethos" meaning "custom" or Ethics cannot be defined. Ethics differs from morals and morality in that ethics denotes the theory of right action and the greater good, while morals indicate their practice.
Ethics is not limited to specific acts and defined moral codes, but encompasses the whole of moral ideals and behaviors, a person's philosophy of life or Weltanschauung. It asks questions like "How should people act?
See below for more discussion of these categories. Ancient Greek Ethics Back to Top Socratesas recorded in Plato 's dialogues, is customarily regarded as the father of Western ethics.
He asserted that people will naturally do what is good provided that they know what is right, and that evil or bad actions are purely the result of ignorance: He equated knowledge and wisdom with self-awareness meaning to be aware of every fact relevant to a person's existence and virtue and happiness.
So, in essence, he considered self-knowledge and self-awareness to be the essential good, because the truly wise i. According to Aristotle"Nature does nothing in vain", so it is only when a person acts in accordance with their nature and thereby realizes their full potential, that they will do good and therefore be content in life.
He held that self-realization the awareness of one's nature and the development of one's talents is the surest path to happiness, which is the ultimate goal, all other things such as civic life or wealth being merely means to an end.
He encouraged moderation in all things, the extremes being degraded and immoral, e. Virtue, for Aristotledenotes doing the right thing to the right person at the right time to the proper extent in the correct fashion and for the right reason - something of a tall order.
Cynicism is an ancient doctrine best exemplified by the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinopewho lived in a tub on the streets of Athens.
He taught that a life lived according to Nature was better than one that conformed to convention, and that a simple life is essential to virtue and happiness. As a moral teacher, Diogenes emphasized detachment from many of those things conventionally considered "good".
Hedonism posits that the principal ethic is maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain. This may range from those advocating self-gratification regardless of the pain and expense to others and with no thought for the future Cyrenaic Hedonismto those who believe that the most ethical pursuit maximizes pleasure and happiness for the most people.
Somewhere in the middle of this continuum, Epicureanism observed that indiscriminate indulgence sometimes results in negative consequences, such as pain and fear, which are to be avoided. The Stoic philosopher Epictetus posited that the greatest good was contentment, serenity and peace of mind, which can be achieved by self-mastery over one's desires and emotions, and freedom from material attachments.
In particular, sex and sexual desire are to be avoided as the greatest threat to the integrity and equilibrium of a man's mind. According to Epictetusdifficult problems in life should not be avoided, but rather embraced as spiritual exercises needed for the health of the spirit.
Pyrrhothe founding figure of Pyrrhonian Skepticismtaught that one cannot rationally decide between what is good and what is bad although, generally speaking, self-interest is the primary motive of human behavior, and he was disinclined to rely upon sincerity, virtue or Altruism as motivations.
Humanismwith its emphasis on the dignity and worth of all people and their ability to determine right and wrong purely by appeal to universal human qualities especially rationalitycan be traced back to ThalesXenophanes of Colophon - B.
These early Greek thinkers were all instrumental in the move away from a spiritual morality based on the supernatural, and the development of a more humanistic freethought the view that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logic, and not be influenced by emotion, authority, tradition or dogma.
Normative Ethics Back to Top Normative Ethics or Prescriptive Ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with establishing how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad, and which actions are right or wrong. It attempts to develop a set of rules governing human conduct, or a set of norms for action.
Normative ethical theories are usually split into three main categories: Consequentialism, Deontology and Virtue Ethics: Consequentialism or Teleological Ethics argues that the morality of an action is contingent on the action's outcome or result.
Thus, a morally right action is one that produces a good outcome or consequence. Consequentialist theories must consider questions like "What sort of consequences count as good consequences? Utilitarianismwhich holds that an action is right if it leads to the most happiness for the greatest number of people "happiness" here is defined as the maximization of pleasure and the minimization of pain.
The origins of Utilitarianism can be traced back as far as the Greek philosopher Epicurusbut its full formulation is usually credited to Jeremy Benthamwith John Stuart Mill as its foremost proponent.
Hedonismwhich is the philosophy that pleasure is the most important pursuit of mankind, and that individuals should strive to maximize their own total pleasure net of any pain or suffering. Epicureanism is a more moderate approach which still seeks to maximize happiness, but which defines happiness more as a state of tranquillity than pleasure.
Egoismwhich holds that an action is right if it maximizes good for the self.Nemethics is an ongoing research project: We think, measure, discuss, write, and create together. Join our team to help create a new vision of ethics in the 21st century.
Join our team to help create a new vision of ethics in the 21st century. Christian ethics is not substantially different from Jewish ethics, except in the exhortation to love one's enemy.
 Perhaps the greatest contribution of Christian ethics is . Ethics, however, cannot be confined to religion nor is it the same as religion. Being ethical is also not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe.
Sep 30, · Intuitionism does not mean that all moral decisions are reached by relying on intuition.
Intuition enables the discovery of the basic moral truths, and everyday moral decision-making then involves thinking about the choices available and making moral judgements in an ordinary sort of way. “Ethics cannot be defined as it is too subjective.” From what I have read, Ethics are not easily defined and may differ from person to person or from group to groups and between different companies but overall it is the set of principles that an individual guides his decisions by.
Sep 30, · Intuitionism teaches that there are objective moral truths, and that human beings can find them by using their minds in a particular, intuitive way.
In a recent editorial, the Wall Street Journal announced that ethics courses are useless because ethics can't be taught. Although few people would turn to the Wall Street Journal as a learned expert on the teaching of ethics, the issue raised by the newspaper is a serious one: Can ethics be taught. So, although Aristotle holds that ethics cannot be reduced to a system of rules, however complex, he insists that some rules are inviolable. , properly defined, it can be made to fit Aristotle's ethical outlook. If egoism is the thesis that one will always act rightly if one consults one's self-interest, properly understood, then nothing. Definition of ethic for English Language Learners: rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad ethics: an area of study that deals with ideas about what is good and bad behavior: a branch of philosophy dealing with what is morally right or wrong.