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Overview We demonstrated physical side-channel attacks on a popular software implementation of RSA and ElGamal, running on laptop computers. Our attacks use novel side channels and are based on the observation that the "ground" electric potential in many computers fluctuates in a computation-dependent way.
Through suitable cryptanalysis and signal processing, we have extracted bit RSA keys and bit ElGamal keys Parts of intro of a research paper laptops, via each of these channels, as well as via power analysis and electromagnetic probing. Despite the GHz-scale clock rate of the laptops and numerous noise sources, the full attacks require a few seconds of measurements using Medium Frequency signals around 2 MHzor one hour using Low Frequency signals up to 40 kHz.
We have extracted keys from laptops of various models, running GnuPG popular open source encryption software, implementing the OpenPGP standard.
The attacks exploit several side channels, enumerated below: The electric potential on the chassis of laptop computers fluctuates in reference to the mains earth ground.
This potential can be measured by a simple wire, non-invasively touching a conductive part of the laptop such as the metal heatsink fins or shielding of USB, Ethernet, VGA, DisplayPort and HDMI portsand connected to a suitable amplifier and digitizer. The chassis potential, thus measured, is affected by ongoing computation, and our attacks exploit this to extract RSA and ElGamal keys, within a few seconds.
The wire can be fixed in advance in a location where the target laptop will be placed e. Far end of cable. Thus, one can measure the chassis potential from the far side of cables connected to the aforementioned ports. Ethernet cables, for example, often span long distances, across and between building floors.
An attacker who gains access to the far side of the cable, or taps the shield along the way, can measure the approximate chassis potential. A simple voltage measurement device, perhaps located in the cabinet or server room to which the cable leads, could capture the leakage.
The attacker can measure the chassis potential by merely touching a conductive part of the laptop chassis with his hand, while surreptitiously measuring his own body potential relative to the ground potential of the room.
This attack is especially effective in hot weather, since sweaty fingers offer lower electric resistance. The attacker positions himself in physical proximity to the target laptop and touches it with his bare hand or a conducting pen.
Surreptitiously, the attacker carries the requisite equipment for measuring his body potential relative to some nearby grounded object. We also revisit two traditional physical side channels and demonstrate their applicability to software running on PCs: We performed key extraction by measuring the induced EM emanations, using an antenna near-field probe placed near the laptop.
Electromagnetic probes are easily hidden in nearby objects. A glove, containing a concealed probe loop and hovering over the target laptop, would unveil its key within seconds. Our attack works even though PCs use complex switching power supplies, which partially decouple the power source from the CPU load, and moreover employ large capacitors, chokes, and shields for electromagnetic compatibility EMC compliance — all of which attenuate and disrupt the signals sought in traditional power analysis.
A public charging station can be easily augmented with a current meter, logger, and transmitter. Even a regular power supply "brick" can be similarly augmented, and such laptop power supplies are often shared, offered to guests, or left unattended.
In a recent paper, we also demonstrated attacks using acoustic emanationsi. What information is leaked? This depends on the specific computer hardware.
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We have tested numerous laptop computers, and found the following: On many machines, it is moreover possible to distinguish different patterns of CPU operations and different programs.
Using GnuPG as our study case, we can, on some machines: A good way to visualize the signal is as a spectrogram, which plots the measured power as a function of time and frequency. For example, in the following spectrogram, time runs vertically spanning 10 seconds and frequency runs horizontally spanning During this time, the CPU performed loops of different operations multiplications, additions, memory accesses, etc.
One can easily discern when the CPU is conducting each operation, due to the different spectral signatures.Sep 03, · How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper.
In this Article: Article Summary Sample Conclusions Writing a Basic Conclusion Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible Avoiding Common Pitfalls Community Q&A The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry%(92).
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Abstract. Introduction. Materials & Methods.
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