Research and impact evaluation What is impact? This can involve academic impact, economic and societal impact or both: The impact of research, be it academic, economic and social can include:
There is no question that legalized gambling has brought economic benefits to some communities; just as there is no question that problem gambling has imposed economic and social costs. The important question, from a public policy perspective, is which is larger and by how much. Clearly, to address this and related policy issues, the economic and social costs of pathological gambling need to be considered in the context of the overall impact that gambling has on society.
The benefits are borne out in reports, for example, of increased employment and income, increased tax revenues, enhanced tourism and recreational opportunities, and rising property values e.
American Indian communities in particular, both on and off reservations, reportedly have realized positive social and economic effects from gambling "that far outweigh the negative" Cornell et al.
Social and Economic Effects. The National Academies Press. Such costs include traffic congestion, demand for more public infrastructure or services roads, schools, police, fire protection, etc. To the extent that pathological gambling contributes to bankruptcy and bad debts, these increase the cost of credit throughout the economy.
We use the term "costs" to The economic and social impacts of the negative consequences of pathological gambling for gamblers, their immediate social environments, and the larger community. As we said, the fundamental policy question is whether the benefits or the costs are larger and by how much.
This can in theory be determined with benefit-cost analysis. Complicating such analysis, however, is the fact that social and economic effects can be difficult to measure.
This is especially true for intangible social costs, such as emotional pain and other losses experienced by family members of a pathological gambler, and the productivity losses of employees who are pathological or problem gamblers.
Beneficial effects can also be difficult to measure and, as with costs, can vary in type and magnitude across time and gambling venues, as well as type of gambling e. Ideally, the fundamental benefit-versus-cost question should be asked for each form of gambling and should take into consideration such economic factors as real costs versus economic transfers, tangible and intangible effects, direct and indirect effects, present and future values i.
Moreover, the costs and benefits of pathological gambling need to be considered in the context of the overall effects that gambling has on society. Few reliable 1 The committee recognizes that the possibility of benefits deriving from pathological gambling are only theoretical and are neither described in the literature nor supported empirically.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Consequently, the committee is not able to shed as much light on the costs of pathological gambling as we would have preferred.
We hope, however, that the chapter lays out the issues for readers and provides some guidance to researchers venturing into this area. Costs to Individuals 2 As discussed in Chapter 2the definition of pathological gambling includes adverse consequences to the individual, such as involvement in crime, financial difficulties, and disruptions of interpersonal relations.
According to the criteria presented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMa pathological gambler may be and often is defined by the presence of at least a few of these consequences American Psychiatric Association, Discussions of the costs to the individual of pathological gambling would be circular if we claimed to "discover" these consequences.
Instead, we focus on the magnitude and the extent to which pathological gamblers experience these adverse consequences. The literature on individual costs of pathological gambling considers consequences for the gambler and those with whom the gambler has most frequent interactions, including family, friends, and close associates.
The literature focuses primarily on crime, financial difficulties, and disruptions of interpersonal relations. Like the research on risk factors discussed in Chapter 4because most of these studies are based on treatment populations with small samples and no controls, we urge caution when interpreting the results.
Many families of pathological gamblers suffer from a variety of financial, physical, and emotional problems Abbott et al. The financial con- 2 The committee expresses special thanks to Lia Nower for her synthesis and written presentation of literature pertaining to the social costs of pathological gambling to individuals, families, communities, and society.
Lorenz and Shuttlesworth surveyed the spouses of compulsive gamblers at Gam-Anon, the family component of Gamblers Anonymous, and found that most of them had serious emotional problems and had resorted to drinking, smoking, overeating, and impulse spending.Fourth, most of the evidence on social and economic impacts is for exposure to the entertainment media such as television, as opposed to the printed press.
Fifth, for the policy impacts both the substitution effect of media exposure and the demand for entertainment play an important role. Impacts of the Knowledge Society on Economic and Social Growth in Africa aims to catalyze thinking and provide relevant information on the complex ways in which the information age is shaping Africa and the implications that this will have for the continent and the world.
This premier reference volume will provide policy analysts, policymakers. the social and economic impact of cultural organizations, there are at least three possible types of impact that should be the focus of our efforts.
The economic impacts of the Newcastle Earthquake in It c aused approximately 4 billion dollars in damage. This effected the Australian Economy as money was needed to rebuild the devastated town of Newcastle. This money was invested into building new houses, schools and community buildings. Social Impacts According to the Business. Projected impacts of future “business-as-usual” climate changes, relative to a counterfactual of no climate change, are generally much larger than impacts of warming that have already occurred and tend to be comparable to the baseline impact of climate on social and economic outcomes today (Table 1, . Assessing the effects of casinos on society is complicated because many factors have to be considered. Most relate to economics, but some address quality of life and moral issues. Proponents of casino gambling consider it part of the leisure and entertainment sector—like amusement parks or movie.
The economic activity that takes place in the community, economic indications of the desirability of the community and the. to analyzing the social and economic impacts of gambling, with one of the central issues being how to aggregate the social impacts with the financial impacts to arrive at an overall summative measure.
Transit projects frequently produce social and economic externalities and may influence the character and nature of communities. These impacts should be addressed in environmental documents and generally fall into the following categories: land acquisition, community impacts, land use and development, economic impacts and safety/security.
The Visible Impacts of the Syrian War May Only be the Tip of the Iceberg The Toll of War: Economic and Social Impact Analysis (ESIA) of the Conflict in Syria- Key Facts Syria damage assessment of selected cities Aleppo, Hama, Idlib.