Other information-centric aka content centric or named data networking systems are possible, which emphasise identifying content rather than devices. Peer-to-peer file sharing systems take this approach: You don't care which address provides you with parts of the file that you seek, you only want to publish your interest in a certain file and subscribe to any sources that can supply parts of that content.
In Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG. He inserted silver wires under the scalps of his patients. Berger connected these sensors to a Lippmann capillary electrometerwith disappointing results.
However, more sophisticated measuring devices, such as the Siemens double-coil recording galvanometerwhich displayed electric voltages as small as one ten thousandth of a volt, led to success.
Berger analyzed the interrelation of alternations in his EEG wave diagrams with brain diseases. EEGs permitted completely new possibilities for the research of human brain activities. Although the term had not yet been coined, one of the earliest examples of a working brain-machine interface was the piece Music for Solo Performer by the American composer Alvin Lucier.
The piece makes use of EEG and analog signal processing hardware filters, amplifiers, and a mixing board to stimulate acoustic percussion instruments. To perform the piece one must produce alpha waves and thereby "play" the various percussion instruments via loudspeakers which are placed near or directly on the instruments themselves.
His paper stated the "BCI challenge": Control of objects using EEG signals. The demonstration was movement in a maze. In report was given on noninvasive EEG control of a physical object, a robot.
The experiment described was EEG control of multiple start-stop-restart of the robot movement, along an arbitrary trajectory defined by a line drawn on a floor.
The line-following behavior was the default robot behavior, utilizing autonomous intelligence and autonomous source of energy. The obtained cognitive wave representing the expectation learning in the brain is named Electroexpectogram EXG. Inthe BCI Society was officially launched.
The board is elected by the members of the Society, which has several hundred members. These major conferences occur every other year and include activities such as keynote lectures, workshops, posters, satellite events, and demonstrations.
Neuroprosthetics Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, that is, using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems and brain related problems, or of sensory organs.
The most widely used neuroprosthetic device is the cochlear implant which, as of Decemberhad been implanted in approximatelypeople worldwide.
The difference between BCIs and neuroprosthetics is mostly in how the terms are used: Practical neuroprosthetics can be linked to any part of the nervous system—for example, peripheral nerves—while the term "BCI" usually designates a narrower class of systems which interface with the central nervous system.
The terms are sometimes, however, used interchangeably. Neuroprosthetics and BCIs seek to achieve the same aims, such as restoring sight, hearing, movement, ability to communicate, and even cognitive function.
Animal BCI research[ edit ] Several laboratories have managed to record signals from monkey and rat cerebral cortices to operate BCIs to produce movement. Monkeys have navigated computer cursors on screen and commanded robotic arms to perform simple tasks simply by thinking about the task and seeing the visual feedback, but without any motor output.
In the s, Apostolos Georgopoulos at Johns Hopkins University found a mathematical relationship between the electrical responses of single motor cortex neurons in rhesus macaque monkeys and the direction in which they moved their arms based on a cosine function.
Prominent research successes[ edit ] Kennedy and Yang Dan[ edit ] Phillip Kennedy who later founded Neural Signals in and colleagues built the first intracortical brain—computer interface by implanting neurotrophic-cone electrodes into monkeys. Researchers targeted brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculate nucleus area, which decodes signals from the retina.
The cats were shown eight short movies, and their neuron firings were recorded. Using mathematical filters, the researchers decoded the signals to generate movies of what the cats saw and were able to reconstruct recognizable scenes and moving objects.
Nicolelis[ edit ] Miguel Nicolelisa professor at Duke Universityin Durham, North Carolinahas been a prominent proponent of using multiple electrodes spread over a greater area of the brain to obtain neuronal signals to drive a BCI. After conducting initial studies in rats during the s, Nicolelis and his colleagues developed BCIs that decoded brain activity in owl monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms.
Monkeys have advanced reaching and grasping abilities and good hand manipulation skills, making them ideal test subjects for this kind of work. By the group succeeded in building a BCI that reproduced owl monkey movements while the monkey operated a joystick or reached for food.
But the monkeys could not see the arm moving and did not receive any feedback, a so-called open-loop BCI. Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and colleagues for use on rhesus monkeys Later experiments by Nicolelis using rhesus monkeys succeeded in closing the feedback loop and reproduced monkey reaching and grasping movements in a robot arm.
With their deeply cleft and furrowed brains, rhesus monkeys are considered to be better models for human neurophysiology than owl monkeys. The monkeys were trained to reach and grasp objects on a computer screen by manipulating a joystick while corresponding movements by a robot arm were hidden.
The BCI used velocity predictions to control reaching movements and simultaneously predicted handgripping force. The monkey was brain controlling the position of an avatar arm while receiving sensory feedback through direct intracortical stimulation ICMS in the arm representation area of the sensory cortex.
These researchers have been able to produce working BCIs, even using recorded signals from far fewer neurons than did Nicolelis 15—30 neurons versus 50— neurons.
Miguel Nicolelis and colleagues demonstrated that the activity of large neural ensembles can predict arm position.Aug 28, · Thesis and Research Topics in Computer Networking.
Computer Networking is a field that deals with the creation of networks to connect different devices for communication. In a blog post a while back I suggested being a fast writer can be a career 'edge'. Afterwards a surprisingly large number of people wrote to me wanting to become faster writers, or questioning whether learning to write faster was possible.
I was a bit taken aback by the questions as I assumed there. Biography of pioneer Robert M. Metcalfe from J.A.N. Lee's book Computer Pioneers, updated. Thesis on networking concentrates on analog and digital computer networks.
By interconnection of computers and routers on a single cable network is formed. Our concern has supported more than + Thesis on networking. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah I have a small home network of three computers.
Today, I could not access a shared folder from one of my computers. I could see the shared folder, but when I clicked its icon, a dialog box appeared requesting my username and password.