Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.
Cybernetics - Specifically in the form ofManagerial Cybernetics to provide an understanding of the communication and control processes required by any organization and hence an understanding of the Information Systems needed to support them.
Management - Once we have these tools in place we can then say something meaningful about management, not only about organizational management but also about Information System Management.
A convenient summary of management was published in by Luther Gulick, an American research worker in public administration. Planning - Selecting objectives and means of accomplishing them.
Directing - Managers have to explain to staff what is required and what their contribution is expected to be. Controlling - Measuring and correcting activities of people to ensure that plans are being accomplished.
Innovating - We live in an era of continual change where it is essential for businesses and individuals to adapt.
Part of this adaptation requires a willingness to innovate. Innovation in this context need not be particularly grand, e. Representing - Managers must represent their organization, their department, and sometimes their staff. For instance, a shop manageress has to represent her company when customers complain.
Empirical or Case Approach.A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in a classic definition of the manager's role. He said that to manage is "to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control".
This definition is still accepted by many people today, though some writers on management have modified Fayol's description. To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control.
To foresee and plan means examining the future and drawing up the plan of action. To organize means building up the dual structure, material and human, of the undertaking. To command means binding together, unifying and harmonizing all activity and effort.
From these principles, Fayol concluded that management should interact with personnel in five basic ways in order to plan and control production. According to him, “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control”. Fayol (): • “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control” - $, sales reached , • Assembly line, single purpose machines, interchangeable workers interchangeable parts are four pillars of Fordism.
Téléchargez comme PPTX, PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd. Signaler comme contenu inapproprié. Télécharger. Reprint of Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. While Frederick Taylor was tinkering with the technology employed by the individual worker, Fayol was theorizing about all of the elements necessary to organize and manage a major corporation.