French didn't really enter into it, although I'm sure some families were trilingual and included that language as well.
Dendrite growth requires moisture capable of dissolving the metal into a solution of metal ions which are then redistributed by electromigration in the presence of an electromagnetic field.
While the precise mechanism for whisker formation remains unknown, it is known that whisker formation does not require either dissolution of the metal or the presence of an electromagnetic field. Effects[ edit ] Several mm long zinc whiskers on zinc coated steel Whiskers can cause short circuits and arcing in electrical equipment.
The phenomenon was discovered by telephone companies in the late s and it was later found that the addition of lead to Zink paper solder provided mitigation. Others have focused on the development of oxygen-barrier coatings to prevent whisker formation.
Whiskers can form on the underside of zinc electroplated floor tiles on raised floors due to stresses applied when walking over them; and these whiskers can then become airborne within the floor plenum when the tiles are disturbed, usually during maintenance. Whiskers can be small enough to pass through air filters and can settle inside equipment, resulting in short circuits and system failure.
Tin whiskers don't have to be airborne to damage equipment, as they are typically already growing in an environment where they can produce short circuits. In computer disk drives they can break off and cause head crashes or bearing failures.
Tin whiskers often cause failures in relaysand have been found upon examination of failed relays in nuclear power facilities.
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Such atmospheres can exist in sewage treatment and paper mills. Mitigation and elimination[ edit ] Several approaches are used to reduce or eliminate whisker growth with ongoing research in the area.
Conformal coatings Conformal compound coatings stop the whiskers from penetrating a barrier and reaching a nearby termination and forming a short. These include barriers made of a ceramic or polymeric compound. Polymeric compounds tend to deflect the whisker away while ceramic chemistries prevent puncturing of the coating.
It was initially thought that space weather contributed to the failure, but later it was discovered that a conformal coating had been mis-applied, allowing whiskers formed in the pure tin plating to find their way through a missing coating area, causing a failure of the main control computer.
The manufacturer, Hughes, has moved to nickel plating, rather than tin, to reduce the risk of whisker growth. The tradeoff has been an increase in weight, adding 50— kg to pounds per payload.
The false alarm was caused by a tin whisker that short circuited the logic board that was responsible for monitoring the steam pressure lines in the power plant.
There is no electronic-based cause for unintended high-speed acceleration in Toyotas.Metal whiskering is a phenomenon which occurs in electrical devices when metals form long whisker-like projections over vetconnexx.com whiskers were noticed and documented in the vacuum tube era of electronics early in the 20th century in equipment that used pure, or almost pure, tin solder in their production.
It was noticed that small metal hairs or . ZINK photo paper is waterproof, and tear- and smudge resistant, and adhesive-backed.
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They are Sticky-Backed and there are 80 SHEETS per box. Instantly print your photos with ZINK® Zero-Ink® Printing Technology. Metal whiskering is a phenomenon which occurs in electrical devices when metals form long whisker-like projections over vetconnexx.com whiskers were noticed and documented in the vacuum tube era of electronics early in the 20th century in equipment that used pure, or almost pure, tin solder in their production.
It was noticed that small metal hairs or tendrils grew between metal solder pads causing.